26 Eylül 2007 Çarşamba
Cruelty to animals refers to treatment or standards of care that cause unwarranted or unnecessary suffering or harm to animals. Standards of both animal cruelty legislation, and enforcement, may vary between different places from non-existent through to comprehensive, and the acts and conditions which are deemed "cruel" also vary. Opinions are divided whether practices such as factory farming, fur farming and animal testing of medical procedures and consumer products pose a major moral issue.
Cases in which cruelty to animals is due to a deliberate wish to be cruel (as opposed to neglect), are known as zoosadism, and have been repeatedly linked via research with abuse and cruelty to people (including the more sensationalist examples of torture and killing). In such extreme cases cruelty to animals may also have occurred, as a "rehearsal" or as an aspect of development. However this should be viewed in perspective; not all cruelty is sadism, nor are all persons who are cruel to animals necessarily going to be abusive towards people.
Human rights refers to "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law."The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights states, "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
The idea of human rights descended from the philosophical idea of natural rights that are provided by God; some recognize virtually no difference between the two and regard both as labels for the same thing while others choose to keep the terms separate to eliminate association with some features traditionally associated with natural rights. John Locke is perhaps the most important philosopher that developed this theory.
Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause pain, injury, or other physical suffering or harm.
Basic forms include:
- pushing, pulling
- striking with an object
- having someone fall
- sleep deprivation
- exposure to cold, freezing
- exposure to heat or radiation, burning
- exposure to electric shock
- placing in "stress positions" (tied or otherwise forced)
- cutting or otherwise exposing somebody to something sharp
- exposure to a dangerous animal
- throwing or shooting a projectile
- exposure to a toxic substance
- infecting with a disease
- withholding food or medication
- spanking is subject to controversy as to whether it qualifies as physical abuse.